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Brahmin, Himachal India

Study statistics

Loci
20 Autosomal STRs
Allele type
Unknown
Sample size
170
Location
Himachal Pradesh, India
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Bibliographic information

Date published
June 1, 2022
Title
Insight into the Genetic and Forensic Attributes of Brahmin Population of Himachal Pradesh, India
Authors
Vivek Sahajpal, Abhishek Singh, Mukesh Thakur, Deepika Bhandari, and Shivkant Sharma
Journal
Gene Reports
Abstract

We evaluated the genetic polymorphism of Brahmin population of Himachal Pradesh using the PowerPlex® 21 System (Promega, USA). Altogether, we observed 200 alleles among 170 genetically unrelated individuals of the Brahmin population by using 20 STR loci with average 10 ± 0.75 alleles per locus. The unbiased expected heterozygosity (UHe) in the population ranged from 0.70 to 0.93 with an average 0.82 ± 0.01. No locus deviated from Hardy Weinberg equilibrium except D2S1338. Locus Penta E was found to be the most polymorphic with the highest power of discrimination. The combined power of discrimination and the combined power of exclusion was 1 and 0.999999996 for 20 STR loci exhibiting suitability of this select panel of loci in forensic casework and population genetic studies. Additionally, we analysed the phylogenetic relationship of Brahmins of Himachal Pradesh with the available data of Brahmin populations from the other States of India. The results showed relatively high genetic affinity between the Brahmins of Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The study provides novel population genetic data of the Brahmin population of Himachal Pradesh which is forensically important considering the ‘DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2019’ recently introduced in Lok Sabha, Government of India in respect of matters under the Indian Penal Code, 1860, and for civil matters such as paternity suits and establishment of individual identity.

Forensic parameters

Forensic parameters for each locus as reported by the authors.
Locus # MP PI Hobs Hexp PIC PD PE HWE
CSF1PO 170 0.200 1.950 0.740 0.700 0.640 0.800 0.500 -
D12S391 170 0.050 2.560 0.800 0.850 0.830 0.950 0.610 -
D13S317 170 0.080 2.160 0.770 0.800 0.780 0.920 0.540 -
D16S539 170 0.080 2.410 0.790 0.790 0.770 0.920 0.590 -
D18S51 170 0.070 2.560 0.800 0.800 0.780 0.930 0.610 -
D19S433 170 0.070 3.420 0.850 0.800 0.780 0.930 0.700 -
D1S1656 170 0.030 5.860 0.910 0.900 0.890 0.970 0.830 -
D21S11 170 0.050 3.150 0.840 0.850 0.830 0.950 0.680 -
D2S1338 170 0.040 2.160 0.770 0.870 0.860 0.960 0.540 -
D3S1358 170 0.110 2.160 0.770 0.770 0.730 0.890 0.540 -
D5S818 170 0.120 1.280 0.610 0.720 0.680 0.880 0.300 -
D6S1043 170 0.070 3.150 0.840 0.810 0.790 0.930 0.680 -
D7S820 170 0.080 2.160 0.770 0.780 0.750 0.920 0.540 -
D8S1179 170 0.050 3.150 0.840 0.840 0.830 0.950 0.680 -
FGA 170 0.040 3.730 0.870 0.870 0.850 0.960 0.730 -
Penta D 170 0.060 3.150 0.850 0.830 0.810 0.940 0.680 -
Penta E 170 0.020 4.100 0.880 0.920 0.920 0.980 0.750 -
TH01 170 0.080 1.780 0.720 0.780 0.750 0.920 0.460 -
TPOX 170 0.150 1.640 0.700 0.700 0.650 0.850 0.420 -
vWA 170 0.060 3.150 0.840 0.820 0.800 0.940 0.680 -

Allele frequencies

CSF1PO D12S391 D13S317 D16S539 D18S51 D19S433 D1S1656 D21S11 D2S1338 D3S1358 D5S818 D6S1043 D7S820 D8S1179 FGA PentaD PentaE TH01 TPOX vWA
5 0.006 0.055
6 0.006 0.238
7 0.006 0.006 0.055 0.195 0.006
8 0.085 0.079 0.018 0.177 0.006 0.024 0.012 0.104 0.372
9 0.018 0.11 0.213 0.006 0.049 0.067 0.012 0.238 0.049 0.274 0.091
9.3 0.189
10 0.165 0.085 0.091 0.012 0.012 0.098 0.012 0.152 0.104 0.14 0.073 0.098
11 0.378 0.262 0.323 0.012 0.159 0.409 0.329 0.293 0.079 0.232 0.116 0.372
12 0.354 0.293 0.165 0.079 0.079 0.122 0.268 0.207 0.262 0.091 0.11 0.079 0.049
13 0.085 0.116 0.116 0.11 0.341 0.116 0.159 0.098 0.043 0.14 0.152 0.091 0.006 0.006
13.2 0.018
14 0.043 0.006 0.39 0.201 0.067 0.049 0.018 0.122 0.213 0.055 0.049 0.006 0.14
14.2 0.043
15 0.006 0.11 0.159 0.11 0.244 0.018 0.238 0.03 0.098 0.11
15.2 0.067
15.3 0.037
16 0.006 0.098 0.061 0.152 0.006 0.329 0.085 0.006 0.128 0.159
16.2 0.018
16.3 0.024
16.4 0.012
17 0.171 0.085 0.006 0.067 0.085 0.189 0.024 0.03 0.024 0.25
17.1 0.024
17.3 0.012 0.037
18 0.25 0.061 0.055 0.14 0.152 0.061 0.037 0.22
18.3 0.018 0.012
19 0.14 0.03 0.104 0.006 0.061 0.061 0.03 0.098
19.3 0.006
20 0.079 0.012 0.122 0.006 0.055 0.159 0.073 0.012
21 0.079 0.024 0.012 0.128 0.012 0.006
21.2 0.006
22 0.14 0.073 0.165
22.2 0.006
23 0.055 0.189 0.171 0.006
23.2 0.018
24 0.043 0.006 0.177 0.134
24.2 0.024
25 0.006 0.055 0.11
25.2
26 0.006 0.018 0.018
27 0.012 0.006
28 0.098
29 0.213
30 0.207
30.2 0.024
31 0.043
31.2 0.159
32 0.006
32.2 0.14

Locus histograms

CSF1PO

D12S391

D13S317

D16S539

D18S51

D19S433

D1S1656

D21S11

D2S1338

D3S1358

D5S818

D6S1043

D7S820

D8S1179

FGA

PentaD

PentaE

TH01

TPOX

vWA